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Nowadays, at the low end of the transmission protocols, I²C (for ‘Inter-Integrated Circuit’, protocol) and SPI (for ‘Serial Peripheral Interface’) are to be found. Both protocols are well-suited for transmissions betwixt unified circuits, for slow transmission with onboard components. At the essence of these two popular protocols two major companies are found – Philips for I²C and Motorola for SPI – and two diverse histories about why, when and how the protocols were generated.
The RS232/485 port consecutively sends and receives bytes filled with information one bit at a time. Although the serial method is somewhat slower than parallel communication, which allows the transmission of an entire byte at once, it is far simpler and can be employed over longer distances because power consumption is lower than that of parallel one. As an example, the IEEE 488 standard for parallel communication requires that the cabling between equipment can be no more than 20 meters total, with no more than 2 meters between any two connected devices.